Here’s a basic guide to help you calculate the number of shards needed for an Amazon Kinesis stream.
Step 1: Understand Shards Shards are the fundamental units of throughput in a Kinesis stream. Each shard can support a certain amount of data read and write throughput. To determine the number of shards needed, you’ll need to consider your data volume and your desired throughput.
Step 2: Estimate Data Volume
- Start by estimating the amount of data you expect to produce or consume per second. This can be in terms of data size (e.g., megabytes) or records per second.
- Consider the peak times when your data production or consumption will be at its highest. This will help you estimate the maximum throughput required.
Step 3: Calculate Shards
- Calculate the write capacity required: Divide your estimated data volume per second by the maximum data volume that a shard can handle (1 MB/s for writes).
Write Capacity = Estimated Data Volume (MB/s) / 1 MB/s per Shard
- Calculate the read capacity required: Divide your estimated data volume per second by the maximum data volume that a shard can handle (2 MB/s for reads).
Read Capacity = Estimated Data Volume (MB/s) / 2 MB/s per Shard
- Determine the required number of shards: The number of shards needed is the maximum of the write and read capacities calculated
Number of Shards = Max(Write Capacity, Read Capacity)
Step 4: Adjust for Scalability and Redundancy Keep in mind that the number of shards you initially calculate should provide enough capacity for current and future needs. Additionally, consider adding some extra shards to handle unexpected spikes in traffic and to ensure redundancy in case of shard failures.
Step 5: Consider Kinesis Data Streams Limits Be aware of AWS limits for the maximum number of shards you can have in a single stream. As of my last update in September 2021, the limit is 500 shards per stream.
Step 6: Monitor and Scale Regularly monitor your stream’s performance using AWS CloudWatch metrics. If you notice that you’re hitting shard limits or experiencing latency issues, you might need to adjust the number of shards by scaling up or down.
- If your data volume is unpredictable, you might want to consider using AWS Auto Scaling to dynamically adjust the number of shards based on the incoming data rate.
- If you’re using Kinesis Data Streams for real-time analytics, make sure your shard count aligns with your desired processing speed and capacity.
Remember that shard calculations can be complex and may vary based on factors like data size, distribution, and your specific use case. Be prepared to iterate and adjust the number of shards as your application evolves and your understanding of its needs deepens.