Europol Report Reveals Alarming Insights into Europe’s Amphetamine Market

In a groundbreaking analysis, Europol has joined forces with the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) to shed light on a pressing concern: the amphetamine market in Europe. Their report uncovers a complex web of challenges surrounding the production, distribution, and environmental impact of amphetamine. In this article, we summarise the key findings of this report, revealing the significant presence of amphetamine in Europe and the critical issues it raises for both law enforcement and environmental protection.



Europol, in collaboration with the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), has released an analysis on Europe’s amphetamine market, “Amphetamine: new analysis on Europe’s most common synthetic stimulant highlights sophisticated EU-based production and environmental concerns”. The report highlights the significant presence of amphetamine in Europe, its impact on the environment, and the involvement of criminal networks in its production and distribution.

Key Facts

Here are the key facts.

Amphetamine Market in Europe

  • Amphetamine is the most common synthetic stimulant available in Europe.
  • The European amphetamine market is worth a minimum of EUR 1.1 billion annually.
  • Europe and the Middle East are major producers and consumers of amphetamine.

Production and Trafficking

  • Most amphetamine consumed in the EU is produced domestically.
  • The Netherlands and Belgium are key production hubs using complex equipment.
  • Criminals innovate to simplify production methods, increase profits, and reduce chemical usage.
  • Concerns about the spread of “conversion labs” in more EU countries.
  • Between 2019 and 2021, 337 illicit amphetamine production sites were dismantled in the EU, generating harmful chemical waste.

Distribution and Use

  • Amphetamine is primarily consumed as powders and paste in Europe.
  • In the Middle East, it is commonly used as ‘captagon’ tablets.
  • Around 10.3 million European adults have used amphetamines in their lifetime, with 2 million using them in the last year.

Environmental Impact

  • Large-scale amphetamine production generates significant chemical waste, posing environmental and health risks.
  • Europe is a global producer of amphetamine, and each kilogram produced results in nearly 40 kilograms of chemical waste.

Potential for Increased Production for Export

  • Only a small portion of EU-manufactured amphetamine is used to produce captagon tablets, primarily in the Netherlands.
  • The analysis raises questions about whether EU-based producers may increase amphetamine production for export to the Middle East.

Criminal Networks

  • Criminal networks involved in amphetamine trade are business-oriented and cooperative.
  • Some criminals provide logistical support, chemicals, equipment, and expertise.
  • Legal business structures are often misused to facilitate production and distribution.
  • Violence and corruption are used when necessary to meet criminal goals.


  • The report suggests improving strategic intelligence, strengthening supply reduction efforts, enhancing security, and boosting international cooperation.
  • Investment in capacity-building and reinforcing policy and public health responses is also emphasized.

Environmental Concerns

  • The report underscores the environmental damage caused by amphetamine production and the importance of cross-border cooperation and knowledge-sharing among EU Member States.

This analysis sheds light on the significant presence of amphetamine in Europe, its environmental repercussions, and the challenges posed by criminal networks involved in its production and distribution. It calls for concerted efforts at both the EU and Member State levels to address these issues effectively.

Critical Analysis

A critical analysis of the report on Europe’s amphetamine market by Europol and EMCDDA.

  1. Market Size and Economic Impact: The report highlights the substantial economic impact of the amphetamine market in Europe, estimating it at a minimum of EUR 1.1 billion annually. However, it’s worth noting that this is likely a conservative estimate, given the clandestine nature of the drug trade. A more comprehensive assessment of its economic impact could provide a clearer picture. Equally, Europe, with a population of c750 million people, is only reporting 2 million current users of Amphetamines, with c10 million having taken it at some point through their lifetime, probably due to reporting and measurement, given the negativity to admitting using or having used it.
  2. Environmental Concerns: The report rightly underscores the environmental damage caused by amphetamine production. However, it lacks specific data on the extent of this damage, such as the locations and severity of chemical waste contamination. A more detailed analysis of the environmental impact could inform targeted mitigation efforts.
  3. Innovation in Production: The report acknowledges criminal innovation in simplifying amphetamine production methods. This innovation contributes to higher profits and reduced risks for criminals. A critical analysis might delve deeper into the reasons behind these innovations and how law enforcement agencies can adapt their strategies to counter them effectively.
  4. International Cooperation: The report emphasizes the need for international cooperation to address the amphetamine trade. While this is crucial, it doesn’t delve into the challenges and limitations of such cooperation, such as legal and jurisdictional complexities. A more critical examination of these issues could guide policymakers in strengthening international efforts.
  5. Public Health and Safety: The report mentions public health consequences but lacks a detailed exploration of these impacts. A more comprehensive analysis could examine the effects of amphetamine use on individuals and communities, including addiction rates, healthcare costs, and societal disruptions.
  6. Policy Responses: The report suggests reinforcing policy responses, but it doesn’t provide specific policy recommendations. A more in-depth analysis could outline evidence-based policy measures to tackle amphetamine production and distribution effectively.
  7. Data Sources and Methodology: It would be helpful to have transparency regarding the data sources and methodology used in the report. Critical analysis should consider the reliability of data and potential biases in the information presented.
  8. Future Trends: The report briefly mentions the potential for increased amphetamine production for export to the Middle East but doesn’t explore this scenario in detail. A forward-looking analysis could assess the likelihood of such a trend and its implications for European security.


In conclusion, while the report provides valuable insights into Europe’s amphetamine market, there are opportunities for more in-depth analysis in several areas. A critical examination of economic impact, environmental damage, innovation in production, international cooperation challenges, public health impacts, policy responses, data sources, and future trends could enhance the report’s effectiveness in guiding policy and law enforcement efforts.