History of Cheltenham: NCSC

A short article on the history of the UK Government’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), include: precursors to the agency, factors leading to its founding, and an actual history (of the NCSC).

Precursors to the Creation of the NCSC

Before the establishment of the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) in 2016, the UK’s cybersecurity responsibilities were distributed among various governmental departments and agencies. The birth of the NCSC was an effort to consolidate these functions into a single centralized body, improving efficiency, communication, and effectiveness. Let’s delve into the precursors and the circumstances that led to the NCSC’s creation:

1. CESG (Communications-Electronics Security Group):

  • Description: CESG was the information security arm of GCHQ and was the UK government’s National Technical Authority for Information Assurance, responsible for ensuring the security of the UK government’s digital communications and information systems.
  • Relevance: The expertise and responsibilities of CESG formed a foundational element of the NCSC. When the NCSC was established, much of CESG’s role was incorporated into it.

2. CPNI (Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure):

  • Description: CPNI provided security advice to organizations responsible for the UK’s essential services and infrastructure.
  • Relevance: While CPNI remains an entity post-NCSC, its collaborative relationship with the NCSC ensures that critical national infrastructure remains secure from both physical and cyber threats.

3. Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-UK):

  • Description: Formed in 2014, CERT-UK was the national computer emergency response team for the UK. It focused on cybersecurity incident management, collaborating with other national CERTs internationally.
  • Relevance: CERT-UK’s function and responsibilities were absorbed into the NCSC, ensuring a continuation of the relationships and international collaborations that had already been established.

4. Government Digital Service (GDS):

  • Description: While GDS’s main purpose is to lead the digital transformation of the UK government, it has been involved in creating and maintaining secure government digital services.
  • Relevance: The collaboration between GDS and NCSC ensures that as the UK government’s digital services evolve, they remain secure and resilient against cyber threats.

Factors Leading to NCSC’s Creation

  1. Evolving Threat Landscape: The early 2010s saw a sharp increase in the number, variety, and severity of cyber threats. High-profile cyber-attacks on governments, institutions, and businesses globally underscored the need for a centralized, coherent response.
  2. Fragmented Responsibilities: With cybersecurity responsibilities scattered among multiple agencies, there was a clear need for more streamlined communication, response, and strategy formulation.
  3. Public-Private Collaboration: The UK government recognized the importance of collaborating with the private sector to tackle cyber threats effectively. A centralized body would be better positioned to liaise with businesses, share threat intelligence, and offer guidance.
  4. Global Trend: Several nations began centralizing their cybersecurity functions around this period. The establishment of centralized cyber entities in countries like the U.S. and Australia likely influenced the UK’s decision.
  5. Increasing Digitalization: As the UK pushed forward with its digital transformation agenda, the need for robust cybersecurity mechanisms became even more pronounced.


The birth of the NCSC was a response to both the evolving challenges of the digital age and the opportunities presented by more efficient organizational structures. By drawing on the experience, relationships, and expertise of its precursor organizations, the NCSC was positioned to hit the ground running and quickly establish itself as a cornerstone of the UK’s cybersecurity strategy.

History of the NCSC

Exploring the history of the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) and its relationship with Cheltenham:

National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC):


The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) was officially opened in October 2016. However, its roots can be traced to the evolving cybersecurity landscape of the UK, which had been managed by several government departments and agencies. The establishment of the NCSC was an effort to centralize and streamline the UK’s approach to cybersecurity.

Mission and Function:

The NCSC’s primary role is to ensure the protection of the UK’s critical services from cyber threats. This includes not just government departments but also industries and the public. Their work covers a range of areas, from issuing alerts on vulnerabilities and threats to providing guidance on best practices in cybersecurity.

Location and Relationship with GCHQ:

The NCSC is a part of GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters), which is based in Cheltenham. While the NCSC’s main office is in London, its strong ties to GCHQ mean that there’s a shared relationship with Cheltenham. The expertise and resources of GCHQ, particularly in signals intelligence and cybersecurity, have played a pivotal role in the establishment and operation of the NCSC. This collaboration between the two entities is a testament to the significance of Cheltenham in the UK’s broader security apparatus.

Notable Events:

  1. Active Cyber Defence (ACD) Initiative: One of the NCSC’s significant early actions was the launch of the Active Cyber Defence initiative, aimed at providing tools, advice, and resources to help organizations and individuals in the UK protect themselves from cyber threats.
  2. Annual Cyber Threat Reports: The NCSC releases regular reports detailing the cyber threat landscape, highlighting potential risks, and offering guidance. These publications are crucial in keeping the UK informed and prepared.
  3. Incident Response: The NCSC has been at the forefront in responding to significant cyber incidents affecting the UK, providing expertise, coordination, and support in such situations.

Shared History with Cheltenham:

  1. GCHQ Connection: As previously mentioned, the most direct link between the NCSC and Cheltenham is through GCHQ. Given that GCHQ has been rooted in Cheltenham for several decades, the town’s role in intelligence and now cybersecurity is well-established.
  2. Collaborative Projects: On various occasions, experts based in Cheltenham, courtesy of GCHQ, have worked alongside the NCSC on projects, training programs, and responses to cyber threats.
  3. Cyber Schools Programme: In its efforts to promote cybersecurity education, the NCSC, in collaboration with GCHQ and other entities, has supported programs aimed at training the next generation of cybersecurity experts. Given GCHQ’s location, Cheltenham and its surrounding regions stand to benefit significantly from such initiatives.


The National Cyber Security Centre, though relatively new, has quickly become a cornerstone of the UK’s cyber defense strategy. Its strong ties with GCHQ, rooted in Cheltenham, underscore the town’s continued relevance in the ever-evolving landscape of national security and cybersecurity.